Until recently it has been assumed that OS virtualization is the only path to provide appropriate isolation for applications running on a server. These assumptions are quickly becoming dated, thanks to recent underlying improvements to how the Linux kernel can now manage isolation between applications. § Containers now can be used as an alternative to OS-level virtualization to run multiple isolated systems on a single host. Containers within a single operating system are much more efficient, and because of this efficiency, they will underpin the future of the cloud infrastructure industry in place of VM architecture.